women_workers_strikeWomen in today’s society may not realize how far women’s rights and independence has progressed over the past century. Working women in the early 1900s were often expected to work low paying jobs, obey parental authority, and contribute to the family income and house-work. However, many acts of rebellion during this time hinted that social reform was beginning in Canada. Montreal in 1918 saw the traditional role of women being challenged. Many working-class girls marked adolescence with an increased sense of independence and sexual experimentation. Families reacted with alarm, outrage, and fear at the rapid societal change. As a result, hundreds of “delinquent” women were brought before Montreal’s Juvenile Delinquent Court. The role of this court was to regulated the social, moral, and sexual lives of the working class.

To learn more about Montreal’s Juvenile Delinquent Court, check out “The Voluntary Delinquent: Parents, Daughters, and the Montreal Juvenile Delinquents’ Court in 1918” from the Canadian Historical Review. #tbt

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HorowitzThe new issue of the Journal of Scholarly Publishing includes a very special tribute to Irving Louis Horowitz.

Irving Louis Horowitz was a distinguished professor of Sociology and Political Science, a prolific author, and Chairman of the Board as well as Editorial Director of Transaction Publishers. Often regarded by his colleagues as a force of nature, Horowitz was constantly making advances in American scholarship while simultaneously managing institutions and an academic career. As the head of a major social science publishing house, Transactions Publishers- the only publishing house to be headed by a major social scientist- he unleashed a flood of scholarly publications, books, and periodicals covering a vast subject interest. In his lifetime, Irving Louis Horowitz captained a host of voices, discovered fresh talent, and encouraged everyone to write truthfully. Few have achieved such an intellectual monument like Mr. Horowitz.

To learn more about the achievements of Irving Louis Horowitz and the impact he had on his colleagues lives, read “Remembering Irving Louis Horowitz 1929-2012” from the Journal of Scholarly Publishing.

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Gay rights activists in CaliforniaThe last century has been a long and hard fought battle for members of LGBTIQQ2SA communities to achieve equal human rights. In recent days, countless celebrities have recently participated in advocacy campaigns to fight for awareness for homosexual rights. Celebrities such as Daniel Radcliffe, Ellen DeGeneres, Josh Hutcherson, Anne Hathaway, and Brad Pitt among many others, have captured the world’s attention and thrust the issues surrounding LGBTIQQ2SA rights into the spotlight. This increased awareness of homosexual human rights has caused pride celebrations to grow. Modern day celebrations of pride have become a universal event for men and women of all sexual identities to. It has shifted from being a political movement to being a celebration of individual sexuality. Pride Toronto’s annual Pride Parade, is just one example of the unique and progressive LGBTIQQ2SA popular culture that is developing. To learn more about homosexuality and the developing popular culture, check out these articles from the Canadian Review of American Studies and the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture.

Coney, Christopher Le, and Zoe Trodd. “Reagan’s Rainbow Rodeos: Queer Challenges to the Cowboy Dreams of Eighties America.” Canadian Review of American Studies 39.2 (2009): 163-83.

During the 1980s, both Hollywood and the Reagan administration attempted to resurrect frontier masculinity by rewriting the Vietnam War and rehabilitating its defeated hero: the straight-shooting cowboy. But a quarter-century before Ang Lee’s Brokeback Mountain (2005) collided in the space of myth-making with America’s latest cowboy president, individuals opened a counter-hegemonic space that challenged social marginalization in the public sphere. Picking up where subversive westerns from the late 1960s had left off, the little-known artist Delmas Howe and the founders of the International Gay Rodeo Association (IGRA) resisted the imposition of a rigidly heterosexual cowboy mythology and met the Reagan-era cowboy revival on a queer frontier. Examining John Schlesinger’s Midnight Cowboy (1969), Andy Warhol’s Lonesome Cowboys (1969), Howe’s series of paintings entitled Rodeo Pantheon (1977–91), and the founding and rise of the IGRA (accompanied by interviews with IGRA participants), this article uncovers a rainbow rodeo that has challenged America’s cowboy dreams.

Herbert, T. Walter. “Homosexuality and Spiritual Aspiration in Moby-Dick.” Canadian Review of American Studies 6.1 (1975): 50-58.

There is now widespread agreement that Melville depicts homosexual affection in the passages of Moby-Dick that treat Ishmael’s developing friendship with Queequeg and in a later chapter entitled “A Squeeze of the Hand.” Among critics who have sought to deal directly with the homosexual motif there is the further agreement that psychoanalytic concepts offer the greatest promise of yielding a persuasive interpreta- tion.1 Psychoanalytic doctrine is attractive as a way of illuminating the significance of these passages because of its claim to describe powerful unconscious forces; and the critics who have followed this line typically present the homosexual materials as embodying meanings of which Melville was only partly aware. Newton Arvin and Leo Marx, for example, hold that the homosexual theme emerges from a depth of Melville’s mind where psychic opposites clash. Arvin conceives Ishmael, and Melville himself, to be plagued by an obscure inward contest between Eros and Thanatos; to him the homoerotic passages convey love’s vic- torious battle against death.2 To Marx the issues have a collective social significance; he finds in Moby-Dick the divided mentality of American culture generally, its partition into “two kingdoms of force,” a realm of mechanistic aggression opposing a pastoral world of idyllic sentiment. In treating “A Squeeze of the Hand,” however, Marx offers a Freudian inter- pretation of pastoralism itself; he sees the chapter as Melville’s “deepest penetration into the psychic sources … of sentimental pastoralism…. The basis of this feeling, it now appears, is what Freud no doubt would have called an infantile pleasure ego.”

Baldwin, Gayle R. “”What a Difference a Gay Makes”: Queering the Magic Negro.” Journal of Religion and Popular Culture 5.1 (2003): 3.

The “Magic Negro” is a term coined in the 1950s describing Hollywood’s portrayal of black men as characters who, although disabled, have supernatural powers that allow them to save lost or broken white men. Here, I compare this “gospel” with that of the Fab 5 (Queer Eye for the Straight Guy), who transform disheveled, uncultured straight men into “chick magnets.” This comparison concludes that racial and sexual minorities are acceptable in American popular television and film as long as the salvation and redemption motif of the American myth prevails and white heteronormativity remains unchallenged and privileged.

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UTP Celebrates WorldPride: Pride and the Theatre

by cmacmillan on June 30, 2014

ctr149xcart-01Theatre, like many other art forms, is often a response to the world the artist lives in. For artists who are also members of the LGBTIQQ2SA community, this used to mean that the theatre they created was filled with adversity, discrimination, and even sometimes violence, reflected in plays like The Normal Heart, Another American: Asking and Telling, and The Laramie Project. However, society’s evolving and modern view of homosexuality has witnessed a shift of the representation of homosexuality in the theatre. Critics have hailed Mart Crowley’s 1968 The Boys in the Band as the breakthrough production that brought frank and direct representations of homosexuality to the theatre. The Boys in the Band witnessed for the first time a group of men discussing their sex lives, dancing, kissing, and even having sex on the mainstream stage. It paved the way for the theatre world to explore and celebrate homosexuality and sexual expression instead of condemning it. Find out more in these articles from The Canadian Theatre Review and Modern Drama!

 

Canadian Theatre Review 149 (2012): 1-89.
edited by Moynan King

This issue emerges from my personal experience as an artist and curator. I have had the privilege of collaborating and performing with, as well as curating and directing, a number of artists featured here. As the director of Buddies in Bad Times Theatre’s Hysteria Festival (20013 – 2009), founder and director of Cheap Queers (a three-day Pride performance festival), co-director of the Rhubarb! Festival, and producer of a number of independent alternative cabaret and performance events, I have had a privileged glimpse into the challenges of creating and presenting alternative and queer performance. This research project began with a paper I wrote in 2010 entitled “The Foster Children of Buddies,” which looked at the role of queer women at Buddies in Bad Times Theatre since its move to the prominent 12 Alexander Street address. This issue of CTR expands the scope of my inquiry as I seek to examine the contributions of queer women and trans artists on a national level. Furthermore, this issue shares some of the work that has most inspired and emboldened me as a curator and as an artist. These artists have led the way in Canadian performance innovation with multidisciplinary and theatrical experimentation while drawing, in many cases, substantial audiences and dedicated fans.

- Moynan King

 

Greenhill, Pauline. “Dressing Up and Dressing Down: Costumes, Risky Play, Transgender, and Maritime English Canadian Charivari Paradoxes1.” Canadian Theatre Review 151.-1 (2012): 7-15.

Why should it seem appropriate to wear a wedding gown at some charivaris, cross dress and be masked at others, but have entirely unremarkable clothing at most? The author’s question echoes one from anthropologist Edmund R. Leach. In “Time and False Noses,” he asks “Why should it seem appropriate to wear top hats at funerals, and false noses on birthdays and New Year’s Eve?” For Leach, dressing both up and down, despite their symbolic differences–formality versus informality; seriousness versus play–demonstrates a contrast with everyday life. Formality and masquerade alike appear in some practices in Canada related to charivari, a rudimentary form of folk drama. But perhaps equally compelling is the fact that they need not be there, and in most cases do not manifest, as my opening query indicates. The author explores this somewhat paradoxical situation, drawing on interviews and questionnaire responses given by participants in the tradition.

Mann, Sarah. ““You’re Just a Stripper That Came Out of a Time Machine”: Operation Snatch’s Queer World-Making and Sex-Working Class.Canadian Theatre Review 158 (2014): 50-53.

This essay explores the queer world of Toronto’s Operation Snatch (formerly known as The Scandelles), focusing in particular on two of their productions related to sex work, Les Demimondes and Neon Nightz. The essay details the performances, which focus on prostitution and exotic dance, respectively, and discusses whether performances about sex work ought to be considered queer performance art. Arguing that Operation Snatch’s performances constitute “queer world-making,” this essay considers how Operation Snatch leverages affect to engage their audiences in the composition of a queer “world” that critiques popular and burlesque images of sex workers, in which their critical self-representations as sex workers can come to life. By adapting burlesque’s ironic “gaze back” to the “world-making” capacities of cabaret, Operation Snatch produces sex work-related performances that can critique sex workers’ marginalization in both popular and burlesque culture.

Modern Drama 39.1 (1996): 1-243.

 

Adams, Ann Marie. “The Sense of an Ending: The Representation of Homosexuality in Brendan Behan’s The Hostage.” Modern Drama 40.3 (1997): 414-21.

Critics have long pondered the effectiveness of The Hostage’s denouement. Brendan Behan obviously needed the secret policemen to enter the fray and cause the senseless death of the sacrificial Leslie, but why did he specifically use Rio Rita, Princess Grace, and Mulleady as an ironic deus ex machina? As Bert Cardullo notes, many critics see this constructed ending as “cheap” — “cheap in the sense that it suddenly negates the homosexual relationship between Grace and Rita, out of which the playwright has got much theatrical mileage, and cheap in the literal sense that it removes the need to hire extra actors to portray the police.” While the economics of this recycling cannot be denied, it would do a disservice to the text to claim that the constructed ending “negates” Grace’s and Rita’s relationship. If anything, the chaotic close more clearly delineates Grace’s and Rita’s proclivities as well as lengthening the “mileage” the author got from this theme. Like many other “closet dramas” of its age, The Hostage, through its very use of homosexual characters, serves to reinforce many common tacit assumptions about homosexuality, as well as to foreground the nature of its practitioners.

Arrell, Douglas. “Homosexual Panic in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.” Modern Drama 51.1 (2008): 60-72.

Brick’s behaviour in Tennessee Williams’s Cat on at Hot Tin Roof has been understood in a variety of ways by critics. In this article, I argue that he exemplifies “homosexual panic,” as this concept was developed by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick in her book Epistemology of the Closet. Confronted with the possibility that his idealized relationship with his football buddy Skipper may be homosexual, he shuts down sexually altogether. In this respect, he resembles the Victorian bachelor who, according to Sedgwick, took refuge from the double bind of male bonds that were both prescribed and proscribed by retreating into what she calls “sexual anesthesia.” I argue that the character she cites to illustrate this behaviour, Marcher in Henry James’s The Beast in the Jungle, bears a significant resemblance to Brick. I suggest that a character in the grip of homosexual panic cannot convincingly be portrayed as escaping from this condition, and that this explains the problems Williams had with the last act of Cat. In his final version of the play, he shows Brick as unchanged after his scene with Big Daddy, a choice that is thematically right but dramatically unsatisfying.

Fackler, Maria Francesca. ““I’ll Google It”: Gossip, Queer Intimacies, and the Internet1.” Modern Drama 53.3 (2010): 390-409.

With a still developing and largely unpoliced code of ethics, the Internet forces users to renegotiate continually the boundaries and registers of publicity and privacy, and thus, it is the technic that constellates the ideal conditions for gossip, quite apart from its speed and efficiency in circulating tittle-tattle. Proceeding from observations about how the Internet challenges definitional certitudes about the practice and performance of gossip, this article considers the queer performances of Stephen Karam’s darkly comic play Speech & Debate, in which three high-school misfits meet and bond over shared sexual secrets that begin to circulate online. Karam’s representation suggests how the new platforms or stages for gossip that develop out of networking sites and technologies may create new counter-publics, capable, in their turn, of occasioning new forms of counter-intimacy. These platforms offer not only new potentialities for intertextual citation and public discourse but also mechanisms for self-promotion and, in this way, raise questions about the distinction between confession and gossip and between intimacy and publicity: two sets of parallel lines that have begun to bend toward one another.

Farfan, Penny. “Noël Coward and Sexual Modernism: Private Lives as Queer Comedy.” Modern Drama 48.4 (2005): 677-88.

The emergence of modern drama in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was integrally linked to the development of modern sexual identities, and Noël Coward’s career was at once shaped by and definitive of this larger historical development. Coward began his career when male homosexuality was still illegal in England and the imprisonment of Oscar Wilde for “gross indecency” was still a recent memory; his breakthrough play The Vortex premiered in 1924, just four years before Radclyffe Hall’s lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness was banned for obscenity. Coward’s historical situation as a necessarily closeted homosexual raises the question of whether and how the subversiveness of his sexual identity is reflected in his work.

Hauck, Christina. “”It Seems Queer”: The Censorship of Her Wedding Night.” Modern Drama 41.4 (1998): 546-56

“[H]owever vile, however filthy however degrading …. vice so long as it is presented in terms of the strong man’s over-sexuality and the frail woman’s yielding to his dominance, is approved, unthinkingly accepted and consequently is not banned. When, however … you have a plot which depends not on the over-sexuality, but on the under-sexuality of a man … the play is considered improper and is banned!” So British sexologist, birth controller, social commentator and historian, translator, poet, novelist, and playwright Marie Cannichael Stopes assesses the Lord Chamberlain’s refusal, in 1923 and 1924, to license for public performance her autobiographical play, Vectia. Ultimately attributing the censorship of her play to men’s refusal even toconsider a woman’s point of view, Stopes asks, “how many other serious plays by women have been destroyed before ever they came into being?” Her question is not merely rhetorical; it is literally unanswerable. Yet recent feminist excavations of the rich and vast body of work by women do confirm that women’s writing has been subjected to various forms of censorship, Including, most insidiously, that of critical neglects. This paper will contribute to the project of recovering lost texts by women through a discussion of an unpublished one-act play, Her Wedding Night (1917), by a previously undiscovered woman playwright, Florence Bates. This account of the circumstances surrounding. and the justification for, the post-production censorship of this one act comedy in August 1917 not only supports Stopes’s claim that the Lord Chamberlain’s office banned representations of male sexual inadequacy as a matter of principle, but also deepens our understanding of the meaning of “sexual impropriety” as understood by the Lord Chamberlain and adds an important new dimension to studies in British stage censorship.

Rivera-Servera, Ramon H. “Choreographies of Resistance: Latinalo Queer Dance and the Utopian Performative.” Modern Drama 47.2 (2004): 269-89

As a migrant to the United States from Puerto Rico in the early 1990s, I learned to articulate my sexuality and my political identity at the dance club. Within the erotic realm of clubs like Heaven, Carpe Diem, Club Marcella’s, and The Avenue Pub, I embodied my position as a queer Latino. Dancing queerly with my friends — marking my own latinidad through rhythmic phrasings that allowed me to feel and to own the music, and approaching strangers bodily within the comfort of a shared social space — allowed me to experience communities of pleasure. The club, like the theatre, is one of the places where I renew myself, where I am able to witness, in almost religious reverence, the most immediate and affective manifestations of vibrant communities in motion.

Schele, Tomothy. “Acting Gay in the Age of Queer: Pondering the Revival of The Boys in the Band.” Modern Drama 42.1 (1999): 1-15.

“Bellwether,” “watershed,” “crossroads,” “turning point”: with these and other ponderous terms, critics have hailed Mart Crowley’s 1968 The Boys in the Band as the breakthrough production that brought frank and direct representations of homosexuality to American theatre. Where earlier plays had disposed of their “deviant” characters in a denouement that was often tantamount to a cleansing of the homosexual taint, spectators of The Boys in the Band witnessed for the first time a group of men discussing their sex lives, dancing together, kissing, and even having sex on a mainstream stage. The play takes the spectator to an exclusively gay birthday party at the apartment of Michael, a troubled man who coerces his guests into playing a truth game that elicits a series of witty barbs, confessions, and emotional outbursts as each tells the story of his life and loves. In a marked reversal of theatre tradition, the sole straight character, Michael’s former college roommate Alan, is the outsider; it is his unexpected arrival that triggers an explosive scene in Crowley’s play, and the restoration of order requires the purging of the straight man from the stage. The Boys in the Band was a hit (1002 perfonnances). Thereafter, gay characters have frequently occupied center stage instead of the more pathologized regions of the margins, and “gay plays” have flourished in the years since The Boys’ success.

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Anthro_56_1_coverThe past century has witnessed a tremendous improvement in the development of homosexual rights. Prior to this time, members of the LGBTIQQ2SA community faced a large amount of discrimination and adversity, which often made it very difficult for sexual identities to be explored and formed.

Today, homosexual Canadians are able to fully explore their sexuality, some as early as childhood, thanks to the progression of human rights. To learn more about queer experiences and the development of queer identities, check out these articles from Anthropologica, The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, and University of Toronto Quarterly.

Anthropologica 56.1 (2014): 13-82.
Michelle Walks

The thematic section in Anthropologica 56.1 focuses on Queer Studies in anthropology guest edited by Michelle Walks, who re-introduces us to the work accomplished in the anthropology of gender, sex and sexuality to contextualize this current research. These articles explore queer experiences and queer identities in Turkey, Singapore, Vancouver, Toronto and, in a research note, in Thailand. Through these articles, we get new insights into key theoretical issues—homonormativity, neoliberalism, activism, intersectionality, social media, transgender, globalization, immigration and diaspora—in Queer Studies and cultural anthropology more generally.

Dargie, Emma, Karen Blair, Caroline Pukall, and Shannon Coyle. “Somewhere Under the Rainbow: Exploring the Identities and Experiences of Trans Persons.” The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality (2014): 1-15.

The literature on transgender/transsexual-spectrum persons is limited. Most studies are based on the assumption that trans persons are best understood within rigid and binary definitions of gender and sexuality and they tend to focus on diagnostics, medical management and risk factors. Researchers and clinicians may also assume that people who challenge cultural norms of gender and sexuality can be grouped together. Such assumptions about the specific experiences of trans person can be harmfully incorrect. The goals of the present study were to explore the gender and sexual identities of trans persons, to investigate group differences, and to examine factors that predict better psychological and physical well-being. Participants took part in an online study and provided information about their gender and sexual identity, social support, relationship quality, and mental/physical health. Results depicted diverse gender identities and sexual orientations among trans persons and emphasized that while many challenges faced by sexual and gender minorities are similar, trans persons report unique mental and physical health outcomes. Also, greater social support and relationship quality predicted mental, but not physical, health among trans persons. These results highlight the importance of acknowledging the complexity of trans identities and the key role of social and personal support.

Gray, Amy, and Serge Desmarais. “Not All One and the Same: Sexual Identity, Activism, and Collective Self-esteem.” The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality (2014)

This study examines important distinctions in sexual orientation identities by exploring the relationships among sexual identity, activism, and collective self-esteem. Past research has revealed that individuals who label themselves as belonging to certain minority sexual identities may experience different types of outcomes; for instance, bisexual individuals have been shown to experience more psychological hardships (Brewster & Moradi, 2010; Browne & Lim, 2010), whereas Queer individuals’ politicization may buffer against some of these negative experiences and increase their psychological well-being (Galinsky et al., 2013; Klar and Kasser, 2009; Riggs, 2010). We explored whether these important differences could be attributed to a person’s choice of a sexual identity description. An online survey was distributed to Facebook groups affiliated with 33 universities across Canada, which yielded responses from 265 participants. Four distinct sexual identity categories were created and compared in two multiple regression models that controlled for measures of personal and social identity. In the first model, we tested group differences in collective self-esteem and, in the second model, we assessed group differences in political activism. As predicted, collective self-esteem was significantly lower for those who identified as bisexual, and activism was most likely among those who identified as Queer. Our research highlights the need for caution when either measuring or studying aspects of sexual orientation, since these identity categories reflect different personal and political points of reference.

Pyne, Jake. “Gender Independent Kids: A Paradigm Shift in Approaches to Gender Non-conforming Children.” The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 23.1 (2014): 1-8.

Recent years have seen a substantial change in how children who challenge gender norms (referred to in this article as “Gender Independent”) are regarded by professionals, by their families and by the public at large. Pathologized and treated for decades as a mental illness, childhood gender non-conformity would seem to be imbued with new meaning, as evidenced by a growing number of public voices claiming gender variance as part of human diversity. Call it a paradigm shift: from disorder to diversity, from treatment to affirmation, from pathology to pride, from cure to community. This commentary article reflects on recent shifts in language, shifts in identity options, and shifts in the focus of intervention with gender non-conforming children. Drawing on existing research and public discourse, I consider what the field of human sexuality can learn from “Gender Independence.”

Probyn, Elspeth. “The Outside of Queer Cultural Studies.” University of Toronto Quarterly 64.4 (1995): 536-46.

Summer in Montréal, hot and very humid. And as with every year, it seems that the heated pavement brings forth a new Montréal subject, a different social and civic subject wrought of the peculiarities of climate and sensibility. Indeed, it is a local cliché that for a brief moment of time Montrealers and Montréalais alike put off their penchant for politics large and small, cast off with the salt-stained boots and tired winter coats. Instead of political platforms we have bandstands, festivals compete and overlap into a weave of carnival, a moving warp of bodies against bodies: the International Festival of Fireworks, the Festival International de Jazz de Montréal, Divers-cité (our gay pride march), le festival du homard, le festival de la bi&eagrave;re en fû, le Tour de l’île, Portuguese and Italian saints’ days, the Construction Workers’ holiday, les fétes du trottoir—all transform the streets into chaotic bursting capillaries of people celebrating something or other, or merely living fully in the forgetfulness that winter ever existed. Under banners that instruct `Montréal sourit aux touristes,’ fair-weather subjects proliferate. If summer exuberance is common in places where winter is long and hard, Montréal may be uncommon for the ways in which its citizens are placed within a government-funded web of fun, the exhortations resembling school-teacherly dictates to get out there and play.

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Canadian Journal of History remembers the July Crisis

June 27, 2014

The assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 created a political and diplomatic emergency that would ultimately precipitate the outbreak of World War I. On this 100th Anniversary of what came to be called the “July Crisis,” the Canadian Journal of History/Annales canadiennes d’histoire offers historian Ian Germani’s overview of […]

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UTP Celebrates WorldPride: Fighting for Human Rights

June 25, 2014

Same-sex rights have progressed drastically since Everett Klippertwas imprisoned for admitting he was gay in 1965. This ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada led to a demand to amend the legal rights and human rights of homosexual Canadians. On December 22, 1967 Justice Minister Pierre Trudeau proposed amendments to the Criminal Code that would […]

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Pride History

June 23, 2014

The Stonewall Riots that took place in New York City in 1969, marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. This movement transformed the oppression of the LGBTIQQ2SA community into pride. Pride Toronto has existed since the late 1970s and have organized annual pride celebrations since 1981. Canada’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights in […]

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The Ontario Human Rights Commission Fights Discrimination Against Mental Illness

June 20, 2014

Recent Canadian statistics suggest that one in five citizens suffer from mental illness. This revelation led The Ontario Human Rights Commission to introduce a new set of guidelines on Wednesday June 18 sharing how to best handle issues related to the mentally ill. The new policy offers those dealing with mental illness, as well sat […]

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Century Old Canadian Newspapers

June 19, 2014

How were Canada’s first newspapers established? The history of journalism in Upper Canada may have begun in the 1820s. The decade of the thirties saw well-established presses emerging, the most important papers being the Niagara Gleaner, the Courier of Upper Canada, the Colonial Advocate, the Canadian Freeman, and the Christian Guardian of York. To the […]

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